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Arranged marriages are usually a cultural practice in which families will choose spouses for their children. Mail-order brides are also a form of arranged marriage where a spouse is bought on the internet through a broker, generally by a wealthier foreign man. These forms of arranged marriages are also forms of human trafficking and violate the rights of women and children.
This chapter will explore the injustices and exploitation within these forms of matrimony. Child Marriage: Any marriage where Young mail order bride least one of the people to be married is under the age of Arranged Marriage: A marriage in which the family, usually parents, of each of the spouses decide and agree upon the marriage.
Mail Order Bride : A woman ordered over the internet through a broker for a fee to be married to a man in a foreign country. Child brides are girls married before the age of 18, and marriage is a marriage in which one or both of the people to be married are under the age of Child brides are mostly girls who often have to marry much older men. Twenty-seven percent of the countries that do have laws that require parental consent also have legal loopholes where parents can consent for girls two to four years earlier than for boys World Policy Analysis Center, See Figure A.
Map that illustrates the of countries with lax laws about 15 year olds getting married. Marrying children is a worldwide problem crossing cultural, regional, and religious lines. Areas with high poverty levels and lax if any laws surrounding child marriage typically produce more child brides, along with areas where young girls marrying older men is a cultural norm International Center for Research on Women ICRWn.
Due to gender inequality in many regions of the world, girls are not considered wage-earners, but instead a drain on family funds. Again, despite being more common in developing countries, child brides are prevalent in the developed world as well. In many cases, the girl to be married was pregnant, the soon-to-be husband was decades older, and the girl was marrying her rapist in a case of statutory rape Tahirih Justice Center, The context for child marriage varies across cultures and regions.
In poverty and war-stricken countries, parents may marry off their children for her financial security or protection, or because they cannot afford to care for her United Nations, There are also some parents who believe that marrying off their children will protect them from sexual violence, because they will be protected by their partners.
This is not always the case, however, given that sexual violence is often exacerbated by child marriage as the children are physically underdeveloped and vulnerable United Nations Population Fund, ; United Nations, Some girls are forced to make themselves sexually available not only to their husbands but also other male family members at any time ECPAT, Girls who resist advances from their husbands are at a high risk of sexual violence and verbal or physical abuse from their husbands who may force them into submission ECPAT, Moreover, as a result of their lack of physical maturity, child brides are at a high risk for pregnancy complications like obstetric fistula and early or still births, which can sometimes result in death United Nations Population Fund, Because of some religious and cultural beliefs, there is a lot of pressure on girls to prove their fertility.
Therefore, despite pregnancy complications, girls may be pressured or forced to have frequent or close pregnancies—they have little control over their family planning ECPAT, ; United Nations Population Fund, The man pays a broker a fee for the match, and then pays for the travel expenses for the woman to come to him to be married. As the new spouse usually pays for the travel arrangements for the incoming bride or husband, the bride is often financially reliant on the new husband, and sometimes stuck in a relationship that is not what they expected in a country they do not know the language or customs, and where they do not have the money to return to their home country Tyldum, Brides are primarily ordered by men in the U.
In some cases, brides and grooms are genuinely looking for life partners on their own. Yakushko and Rajan highlight the existence of self-described mail order brides who are older and educated and sought out foreign spouses because cultural norms deemed them undesirable. In many cases, the situation of mail order brides is similar to that of child Young mail order bride.
Girls are no longer seen as desirable wives within their communities either because of age, infertility, not being a virgin, or some other reason, so brokers find men willing to marry them for a fee and Young mail order bride and women are sold to men as their brides in arranged and forced marriages. However, in many cases, brokers are selling people for profit, the girls do not know their soon-to-be husbands or the lived reality they are marrying into, and there is a power differential between the bride and her husband Jackson, ; Jones, ; Tyldum, This means that mail order brides is a form of human trafficking that needs to be addressed, even if it is not trafficking in every situation.
Additionally, sometimes the international marriage broker sites are covers for prostitution rings, and act as sites where pimps can buy new girls and sell girls who are no longer of use to them Jackson, In the case of child brides, the trafficking is a bit more obvious: families are being paid for the possession of their daughters, and children are being sold into dangerous and controlling relationships.
Reviewing the years of some of these documents shows how long child marriage has been an international issue. Additionally, as of Junethe deputy grand Iman of Al Azhar, the highest authority in Sunni Islam, issued a fatwa a formal ruling in Islamic law that all children, especially girls, must be at least 18 years of age and consenting before being married Mogoatlhe, Unless there is a ificant increase in not only efforts but also efficacy, however, it is unlikely that the goal will be met UNICEF, The Philippines enacted an anti-mail-order-bride law, in which it is illegal to facilitate the marriage of Filipina women and foreign men as a business Sims, The law has largely been ineffective with the use of the internet for marriage brokering, and for lack of deation of an enforcement agency by the Philippine government Sims, SinceTaiwan has enacted strict laws controlling advertisements of mail order brides, setting minimum age requirements and spousal age difference limits, and began closely monitoring marriages with foreign brides in an effort to combat human trafficking and prostitution Sims, Social workers are charged with advocating for social, economic, and political justice National Association of Social Workers, All of these are areas where a social work presence and practice lens can be beneficial.
For mail order brides, it is important that the Violence Against Women Act is renewed in and continually renewed in the future. Additionally, social workers working with immigrant women need to know the s of abusive relationships, sex trafficking, and prostitution, and know resources to assist women in leaving abusive relationships while protecting their immigrant status.
Amira was a year-old, oldest child of four. Unlike her mother, Amira was able to attend school until she was 13 years old. At about the age of 12 or 13, Amira hit puberty, and her parents were concerned about her walking to school and attracting male attention because of her developing body. Since Amira was then just staying home, her parents felt it was time for her to learn wifely duties and to start a family of her own. Amira met Adeel a few times with both of their families before their marriage, but did not know him well.
After their marriage, Amira moved in with Adeel and took care of their home until she became pregnant with their first child shortly after turning Aptel, C. Child Slaves and Child Brides. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 14 2 DOI: Greene, M.
Ford Foundation. Hedayat, N. What is it like to be bride? BBC News. International Center for Research on Women. Naveed, S. South Asian Studies, 30 2 Peyton, N. Global Citizen. End Child Prostitution Young mail order bride Trafficking. Girls Not Brides. Child Marriage Around the World. Child Marriage Facts and Figures. The Facts on Child Marriage. Jackson, S. George Washington Law Review, 70 3 Jones, J. Trafficking internet brides. Minervini, B. The mating strategies and mate preference of mail order brides. Cross-Cultural Research, 5 X Mogoatlhe, L. Narayan, U. Hypatia10 1 National Association of Social Workers.
Code of Ethics. National Network to End Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women Act. Policy Center. Organization of American States. Costa Rica. Selby, D. Sims, R. A comparison of laws in the Philippines, the U. Akron Law Review, 42 2Article 7. Sossou, M. Abuse of children in West-Africa: Implications for social work education and practice.
British Journal of Social Work, 39, Starr, E. The domestic exotic: Mail-order brides and the paradox of globalized intimacies. Tahirih Justice Center. Tyldum, G. Dependence and human trafficking in the context of transnational marriage. International Migration, 51 4 Preventing Child Marriage. United Nations. Protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons.
Child Marriages: 39, Every day — More than million girls will marry between and United Nations Economic and Social Council. United Nations General Assembly. Young mail order bride sal Declaration of Human R ights. New York. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.Young mail order bride
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