Added: Nathan Presswood - Date: 31.10.2021 11:09 - Views: 26971 - Clicks: 2505
Robert J. Stephure, Susan D. Boon, Stacey L. MacKinnon, Vicki L. suggest that involvement in online dating may increase rather than decrease with age and that older adults may turn to online dating in part as a response to diminishing satisfaction with and use of more conventional ways of establishing romances.
Age was also unrelated to proxy measures of the stigma associated with online dating i. Possible explanations for and implications of these findings are discussed. The present paper reports the of an online survey conducted to explore people's experiences with online dating and, in particular, their use of online personals to initiate romantic relationships.
Here we explore the possibility that age might be associated in important ways with variation in people's experiences with online romance, a possibility researchers have largely neglected to consider in their investigations of relationships established via the Internet. Recent indicators suggest that online dating is a widespread and popular activity. That same year, the of new unique visitors to online dating sites was estimated at 40 million per month in the U. More recent statistics demonstrate that interest in online personals and dating websites remains high.
Users' experiences with Internet personals and online dating may not all be uniform, however, and age may be an important dimension along which such experiences vary. Thus, while Internet dating appears to have fairly wide appeal across age ranges, individuals in some age groups appear more likely than others to seek opportunities to meet romantic partners online.
In particular, the theory argues that, as people age, their sense that their lives are finite increases and they become increasingly focused on the present and goals associated with emotional regulation and less focused on the future and future-oriented goals. Given that intimate relationships play a central role in emotional regulation, Socioemotional Selectivity Theory further proposes that emotionally meaningful relationships characterized by intimacy and affection should increase in importance with age Carstensen, Consistent with this prediction, longitudinal research Carstensen, has shown that frequency of interaction in and satisfaction with relationships with emotionally ificant social network members i.
In contrast, the same study documented ificant age-related declines in frequency of and satisfaction with interactions with acquaintances. Importantly, such declines appeared as early as age 30 and thus well before old age. With respect to the pursuit of romance, if we assume that individuals who use the Internet for this purpose are either single or dissatisfied with some aspect of their existing intimate involvements, Socioemotional Selectivity Theory has important implications for understanding whether and how age will affect their approach to the opportunities that Internet dating offers.
If, as the theory predicts, aging is associated with shifts in temporal perspective characterized by a sense that the future is diminishing, older adults should be more inclined than younger adults to perceive time as a constraint on their ability to succeed in the romance-seeking enterprise. Second, the theory suggests that age-related variations in time perspective should affect people's goal preferences. In comparison with younger adults, older adults should be relatively more focused on the present and the present-oriented goal of emotional regulation than on the future and future-oriented goals.
In the present context, this suggests that increasing age should be associated with intensified desires to find a romantic partner and, particularly, a partner with whom the individual might share an emotionally meaningful and affectively positive bond. In sum, Socioemotional Selectivity Theory provides a theoretical basis for expecting that there may be important associations between age and involvement in dating activity, broadly defined. If we further assume that—for reasons we will outline next—older adults may also be more motivated than younger adults to take advantage of technological advances that might facilitate achieving their romantic objectives, Socioemotional Selectivity Theory provides a theoretical justification for predicting that, compared to younger adults, older adults should be more motivated to invest in online dating activity.
Shifts in time perspective are not the only changes that accompany aging. Young adults, for example, and especially young adults enrolled in full-time studies, are likely to enjoy greater access to large s of potential partners in their normal day to day activities than older adults who have been in the workplace for several or perhaps many years.
Older adults may thus find the sheer volume of the user base, the speed, and the convenience of use associated with online personals appealing to a greater extent than do younger persons. Older adults are also more likely to be divorced or separated than younger adults. We might thus expect them to be relatively more interested than their younger counterparts in those means of identifying and meeting potential partners that offer opportunities for screening and selection.
To the extent that individuals become more certain of and perhaps more fixed in their tastes as they age or learn from experience i. Based on Socioemotional Selectivity Theory and a consideration of the ways in which Internet dating may provide convenient solutions to some of the particular dating challenges older adults may face, we have argued that there are grounds for expecting that age may be associated with increasing involvement in online dating pursuits. The reality, however, may not be as simple as we have painted it thus far.
Consider the following. First, until the advent of online dating sites in the s and their recent and rapid proliferation on the Internet, the tasks associated with finding a romantic partner typically required that individuals meet face to face before they could get to know one another and determine their compatibility as a couple. To those who began dating before the rise of online dating sites, then, finding a date or a mate usually meant seeking possibilities for face-to-face contact with one or more potential eligibles.
Against this experiential backdrop, individuals in older cohorts may find the notion of turning to computers and the Internet to find romance rather more unconventional and counternormative than do today's younger adults.
Second, younger adults may also be more skilled in the use of the Internet for nonwork-related purposes. Whereas many older adults may have first encountered the Internet in workplace or educational environments, younger persons are more likely to have been introduced to the social uses of the Internet along with or before its more utilitarian applications.
They may thus be more comfortable using the Internet as a social and relationship-building tool certainly social network sites such as MySpace and Facebook have provided online resources deed for the maintenance of relationships than individuals whose early lives did not include the Internet and thus more likely to view the process of meeting romantic partners online as a simple and natural extension of their efforts to meet partners through face-to-face means. Research on other aspects of Internet behavior provides a basis for expecting a generational gap in patterns of Internet use e.
To Dating before the internet knowledge, however, researchers have yet to undertake systematic examinations of the possibility that age may be an important correlate of people's online dating behaviors and involvement. Indeed, most published reports in this area do not discuss issues of age at all. Nevertheless, a review of the literature on Internet-initiated romantic relationships provides some support for our contention that attitudes toward and experiences in relationships developed online might vary with age.
For example, Donn and Sherman examined the attitudes of undergraduates the vast majority of whom were between the age of 18 and 20 and 76 Ph. Overall, both groups exhibited negative attitudes toward using the Internet to meet potential romantic partners. However, compared to the graduate student subsample, undergraduate respondents were ificantly more negative in their evaluations of Internet dating and those who engage in it.
Undergraduates also expressed ificantly greater concern with issues surrounding trust and safety relative to graduate students, although both groups were sensitive to the possible risks in these domains. Finally, undergraduates were less likely than graduate students to report considering using the Internet to meet potential partners or actually having used the Internet for that purpose. A rather more favorable picture of online dating—or at least of online daters—emerged in Brym and Lenton's large-scale survey of members of a Canadian online dating service.
The majority Contrary to stereotypes Dating before the internet online daters popular at the time of the study, and in direct contrast to the prejudicial views held by participants especially the undergraduates in the Donn and Sherman study, Brym and Lenton found that their sample of online daters was in fact more sociable offline than the general Canadian population. Their Dating before the internet were highly involved in clubs and organizations, visited relatives often, and frequently engaged in social and leisure pursuits with others. Together with the lines of argument we developed above, these two studies highlight the need for further research investigating age in the context of Internet dating.
The Donn and Sherman suggest that older and younger respondents may differ in their attitudes toward and willingness to engage in dating on the net. The majority of their participants had never used the Internet to initiate a romantic relationship, however, thus limiting our ability to generalize their findings to online daters. The Brym and Lenton study, in contrast, sampled active members of a popular online dating site. Their corroborate findings that older adults are active in online dating and call into question stereotyped views—shown in Donn and Sherman to be rather prevalent among younger adults at least those with little or no involvement in online dating —which cast online daters as lonely and desperate Anderson, ; Wildermuth, At the same time, Brym and Lenton did not examine respondent age as a variable of interest.
Consequently, the extent to Dating before the internet their participants' attitudes toward, involvement in, and experiences with online dating varied with age remain empirical questions. The analyses presented in this paper were intended to build on the contributions of these earlier studies. Following Donn and Shermanwe investigated respondent age as an important variable in its own right. Following Brym and Lentonwe recruited Internet users with at least some exposure to Internet personals and online dating sites. We sought to answer the following three research questions:.
RQ2: Is age associated with satisfaction with offline methods of meeting people? RQ3: Is age associated with the likelihood that participants have disclosed to friends and family the fact that they use the Internet to meet people? Our review of reasons to expect that age might be an important variable to consider in understanding the pursuit of online romance suggested two competing hypotheses regarding the direction of any correlation 3 we might observe Dating before the internet age and measures of Dating before the internet of involvement in online dating and the use of Internet personals.
If this were the case, we would expect involvement in online dating to decrease with age. On the other hand, we also reasoned that a variety of contextual life changes associated with increasing age might intensify individuals' motivation to seek new partners while both making it more difficult for older individuals to meet people through offline means and increasing the appeal of dating methods that confer benefits in terms of time and efficiency, size of the pool, and the ability to screen and select potential partners. If this were the case, we would expect involvement in online dating to increase with age.
Accordingly, we tested the following competing predictions:. H1: Individuals will be more apt to engage in online dating the younger they are. H2: Individuals will be more apt to engage in online dating the older they are. Regardless of whether involvement in online dating increases or decreases with age, we expected to find a negative association between respondent age and rated satisfaction with non-Internet ways of finding romantic partners.
This hypothesis was predicated in part on the assumption that, given older adults' reduced access to natural social institutions Hitsch et al. We thus predicted that:. H3: Satisfaction with offline means of meeting people will decrease with age, and. H4: Self-reported opportunities for meeting potential partners will narrow with age. Our final research question was intended to assess albeit in an indirect fashion the degree to which age may be associated with variations in the stigma our participants attached to online dating.Dating before the internet
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